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1 year ago

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Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides were already chosen by the WHO/IPCS (2001) to demonstrate the benefits of IRA, and a case study was developed by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the US EPA, which presented a deterministic integrated environmental and health RA for OPs used in a typical farming GDC-0994 (Vermeire et al., 2003). This local scale assessment considered the risk for humans, wildlife and other environmental species resulting from both direct and indirect exposure at, and following, application of OPs. In the future, the application of the concept of the IRA within the frame of the PPP Regulation could be used in order to facilitate the better exploitation of the available (eco)toxicological data and reduce the number of required studies, as this is also a requirement of the PPP Regulation especially for studies conducted in vertebrate species. The vision of an actual integration of human and environmental MRAs has been suggested for pesticides with common MoAs in both humans and wildlife species, using OPs as an example. However, convincing examples for pesticide groups other than acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (i.e. OPs, carbamates) have not been brought forward, although potential activation and/or modulation of insect and vertebrate nicotinic receptors has been suggested for neonicotinoid pesticides (Li et al., 2011).

1 year ago

The PAE concentrations in dissolved phase of water

Fig. 3 presents (S)-Crizotinib concentration of the Σ14drug residues in the three phases A) for each sampling site and B) for each river. The concentration of drug residues was found to vary strongly whatever the sampling site. In the dissolved phase, concentrations of Σ14drug residues were lower than 1 μg L− 1 except for the Don station in the Deûle River. The highest concentration was recorded at Don (1290 ± 193.5 ng L− 1), followed by Férin (800 ± 120 ng L− 1) and Erquighem-Lys (654 ± 98 ng L− 1) (Fig. 3A). The total concentrations of drug residues associated to SSM were always lower than 30 ng L− 1, much lower than in the dissolved phase. Although low levels of drug residues were detected in the water column of the Scarpe River, their concentrations were detected at high level in the sediment (Fig. 3B). The highest concentration of drug residues was found in Nivelles (station located in the Scarpe River) with 60.7 ± 9.1 ng g− 1 dw followed by Zingem located along the Scheldt (27.8 ± 4.2 ng g− 1 dw) and Don along the Deûle River (26.9 ± 4.0 ng g− 1 dw).

1 year ago

The method used by Environment Canada was based on

A number of reviews of the toxic effects of PFASs have been published (Lau et al., 2007, Olsen et al., 2009, Kannan, 2011, Stahl et al., 2011 and DeWitt et al., 2012). Toxicological studies of mammalian species with PFOS and PFOA have suggested that peroxisome proliferation (Lau et al., 2007 and Kennedy et al., 2004), hepatotoxicity (3M, 2002), neurotoxicity (Harada et al., 2006), immunotoxicity (DeWitt et al., 2012), lipid AZ 12080282 (Wang et al., 2014), and developmental toxicity (Fuentes et al., 2007) may be associated with exposure to these chemicals.
Urban areas are recognized sources of perfluorinated compounds to the environment (Kim and Kannan, 2007). Charleston, SC is an urban area currently experiencing rapid growth as the 9th fastest growing metropolitan area in 2013 (U.S. Census, 2012). Monitoring surveys in Charleston Harbor during 1993–1994 demonstrated that sediments and fish were contaminated by mixtures of metals and organic compounds (Long et al., 1998). However, the status of contaminants such as PFASs is largely unknown, other than a preliminary study conducted in 2004 investigating PFASs in the dolphin food web (Houde et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative assessment of PFASs in sediment to identify spatial differences in contamination within the Charleston Harbor and facilitate a comparison with national and global sediment levels.

1 year ago

Illicit discharges Table nbsp Source identification Identifying and quantifying

It has been suggested that chemical substances such as caffeine, tryptophan, triclosan, cotinine and carbamazepine can be also used as confirmatory indicators for human-derived sewage as distinct from animal and avian sources (Sauve et al., 2012 and Panasiuk et al., 2015). Low concentrations in surface water discharges and analytical interferences (e.g., matrix effects) can be a source of inaccuracy with hydrophilic organic compounds such as carbamazepine and triclocarban being the more promising indicators.

1 year ago

Inventory analysis The activities performed in the production system under

2.3. Inventory analysis
The activities performed in AG 494 production system under study were identified by means of interviews, surveys and by literature.
More specifically, for Subsystem 1 (tomato cultivation) information regarding fertilizer and pesticide applications was collected considering the integrated production guidelines of Emilia Romagna and Lombardy (Regione Emilia Romagna, 2014). As regards the field operations, the agricultural processes reported in the database Ecoinvent (Nemecek and Kägi) have been modified considering the characteristics (mass, power, life span, specific fuel consumptions, etc.) of the machines (tractors and implements) used in the tomato fields. In more details, the diesel fuel consumption was estimated by using the model SE3A (Fiala and Bacenetti, 2012) that considers the power requirements of machines, their work capacity and soil characteristics as well.
Emissions due to the nitrogen fertilizer applications (nitrate, ammonia, and nitrous oxide) were computed according to the IPCC (IPCC, 2006) and Brentrup et al. (2000).

1 year ago

Fig shows the XRD patterns of the

Regarding the amount of Sn in the Sn0.3Ce0.7O2 and Sn0.5Ce0.5O2 catalysts and the calcination temperature (650 °C) during the synthesis procedure, most of the Sn cations were probably incorporated into the CeO2 lattice rather than dispersing on the CeO2 surface. In Fig. 1, the diffraction peaks of the Ce-rich catalysts broadened, and their lattice parameters slightly decreased with the increase of the Sn proportion (Table 1).

1 year ago

CNX1351 Fig xA a SEM image of granulated

4. Conclusions
AcknowledgementsThe authors acknowledge the generous financial support from Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and National Natural Science 'CNX1351' Foundation of China (51402133, 51302115, 61405081).
Transparent ceramics; Co-precipitation; Liquid phase; Sintering evolution; Sintering schedule
1. Introduction
Due to the high transparency and the stable physical–chemical properties, yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) materials have attracted considerable attention for their possible application as the gain media of laser materials (doped with Nd3+, Yb3+, Er3+) [1], [2] and [3], scintillation materials (doped with Ce3+, Gd3+) [4] and fluorescent materials (doped with Ce3+) [5].